FREIF Eurowind Holdings Ltd (the Claimant)
Kingdom of Spain (the Respondent)
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT)
Members of the Tribunal
Doug S. Jones (President), C. Mark Baker (Claimant’s appointee), Kaj I. Hobér (Respondent’s appointee (replaced)), Thomas Clay (Respondent’s appointee)
In the mid-2000s, Spain (and certain other European countries) implemented a series of policies aimed at reducing CO2 emissions. The policies were enacted in response to a European Union directive that required Member States to reduce their carbon emissions in line with obligations committed to under the Kyoto Protocol.