I want to make three remarks. First, I will discuss the issue of reviewing arbitral awards on the merits. I am a judge and not an arbitrator, and am not an expert on international arbitration, so will offer some comments from the perspective of a judge. Second, I will discuss four relevant decisions from the United States Supreme Court. Finally, I will offer some general conclusions, more in the nature of preliminary observations rather than fullyformed views, which may be subject to revision.