International arbitration is a method of private dispute resolution recognized by businesspeople and their in-house counsel all across the globe. It is based on the foundational principle of party consent. Parties express that consent when they decide to arbitrate (i.e., in the form of an arbitration agreement) rather than pursue litigation or some other method of dispute resolution. In other words, any international arbitration is preceded by an affirmative decisionto arbitrate taken by each party to that dispute. In this chapter, we explore some of the factors that weigh on that decision. In particular, we describe why some parties opt for international arbitration while others do not, and we discuss the business case for and against international arbitration by assessing the comparative advantages and disadvantages of arbitration compared to other forms of dispute resolution.