Introduction Proper drafting of awards is of particular importance—the award is of course the primary goal of an arbitration, and awards are the primary object of interest in court actions following arbitration. More to the point, courts will generally refrain from reviewing the evidence and related materials underlying the award, as these are within the arbitrator’s often unreviewable power to assess the factual dispute. Outside of jurisdictional and due process issues, an arbitral award will live or die on its own terms. Finally, once an award is issued, a tribunal is generally functus officio and cannot revisit the award beyond addressing certain clerical issues.1 Although there is some contrary national law, participants to an arbitration should view the award as the final stage in the arbitration process.2 All too often, however, the award is not the final stage in the dispute between the parties. Contentious issues in awards may result in costly litigation and, occasionally, in court-ordered remission, modification or vacatur. No matter the result, litigation undoes the bargain the parties struck when they agreed to arbitrate rather than litigate their disputes. This section examines three sets of guidelines that are intended to prevent these kinds of issues from arising. They aim to make awards more comprehensive, clearer and likelier to withstand court review (and thus to prevent such litigations in the first place).