Self-interest is a driving force in human behavior. This truism surely applies to arbitrators since our careers can rise or fall on our acceptability to labor and management. Our careers depend on our ability to please the parties by demonstrating our understanding of their problems and our fairness in finding a solution. But however understanding or fair we may be, losers are often unhappy. Not all parties are open to persuasion; not all arbitrators are adept at the art of persuasion; and not all disputes lend themselves to the kind of analysis that produces a single, persuasive conclusion. Thus, no matter how well we perform our task, we are bound to provoke displeasure at times. Our selfinterest manifests itself in the instinct to minimize or avoid displeasure. We wish to please.