Until 1987, consumers with new cars plagued with serious defects faced an almost insurmountable burden in winning lemon law redress. They were required either to commence a lawsuit or to seek redress through the manufacturers' own arbitration programs. Rea li sti ca lly, neither option adequately served consumers. Court litigation is very costly and time consuming, effectively placing this remedy out of reach for most consumers. Participati on in manufacturers' arbitration programs was all too often an exercise in futility, resulting in a decision that disregarded lemon law standards and in stead directed additional repairs.