A. LEGISLATION, TRENDS AND TENDENCIES In recent years, Kazakhstan has enacted various legislative amendments designed to confirm the right to arbitrate in Kazakhstan and to facilitate the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Pursuant to the Conception of the Development of Judicial Administration of Local Courts, which was adopted by the Committee of Judicial Administration of the Supreme Court in 2010, the Supreme Court intends to encourage the use of arbitration and mediation, as well as courts of doyens (a traditional Kazakh means of resolving disputes). In this regard, in July 2013 the Kazakhstan Parliament adopted significant amendments to domestic arbitration legislation (the “2013 Amendments”). Changes include: • Expanded jurisdiction in domestic and international arbitration. Under the 2013 Amendments, both contractual and non-contractual disputes as well as monetary and nonmonetary claims became arbitrable. Additionally, international arbitration courts received the right to review civil cases that do not arise out of a commercial activity. • An obligation on state courts to refer parties to arbitration where an arbitration agreement exists, even in the absence of objections by the defendant to the state court’s jurisdiction. • Clarification of some disputed issues. For example, parties to an international arbitration now have the right to seek a state court order to apply interim measures to secure their claims. Also, parties have the right to seek enforcement of arbitral awards in a state court in the region where the debtor’s assets are located, provided the debtor’s place of registration is unknown.