1. The life ban sanction imposed was based upon valid provisions of the FISA Rules. Those provisions were well-known and predictable to all rowers, and had provided for the possibility of a life ban for a first doping offence for more than 12 years. In addition, the Appellant (rower) had signed the “rower commitment”, which clearly confirmed that doping violations in the sport of rowing were punishable with a life ban for a first offence. In the circumstances, therefore, the CAS has no hesitation in finding that the sanction contained in FISA’s Rules satisfied what might be called the “predictability test”.