1. The express terms of Chapter II, Article 2.2 of the Olympic Movement Antidoping Code (OMAC) clearly provide for the application of the principle of strict liability in regard to the offence of doping. The IOC has the initial burden of proving the presence of a prohibited substance in the body of the athlete that is the objective elements of the offence of doping. If the IOC meets its initial burden of proof, the principle of strict liability creates a presumption that a doping offence has been committed. The burden of proof then shifts to the athlete who may rebut the presumption.