A. LEGISLATION, TRENDS AND TENDENCIES A.1 Disputes among China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (“CIETAC”)’s Sub-Commissions A.1.1 Disputes between CIETAC and Its Sub-Commissions On August 1, 2012, CIETAC suspended the authorization of CIETAC South China Sub-Commission (“CIETAC Shenzhen”) and CIETAC Shanghai Sub-Commission (“CIETAC Shanghai”) to accept and administer arbitration cases. CIETAC Shanghai had refused to adopt the 2012 CIETAC Rules, and on August 4, 2012 published its own arbitration rules and announced that it is an independent arbitration commission named “CIETAC Shanghai Commission”. CIETAC Shenzhen has also changed its name to South China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission and is concurrently using the name of “Shenzhen Court of International Arbitration” (“SCIA”). The SCIA released its own rules as from December 1, 2012. The conflict between CIETAC and its former Shenzhen and Shanghai sub-commissions was compounded when the Guangdong Provincial Department of Justice and Shanghai Justice Bureau separately advised in December 2012 that SCIA and CIETAC Shanghai Commission are legally formed independent arbitration bodies and have the authority to accept and hear arbitration cases. Subsequently, CIETAC Shanghai Commission announced on April 12, 2013 that the Shanghai Municipal Government approved CIETAC Shanghai Commission officially becoming the “Shanghai International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission” and that it will use the name “Shanghai International Arbitration Centre” (“SHIAC”) concurrently.