The foreman or first line supervisor in industry appears to have more day-to-day involvement with labor organizations than any other management official. Some authors contend that his performance of these activities is crucial to the efficient operation of the enterprise; whereas others (including many foremen themselves) maintain that their position is that of a figurehead and record keeper, subject to the whims of their organizational superiors and union representatives. The debate over the amount and content of supervisory authority continues; but, it often overlooks one very important dimension—the amount of respect that hourly employees are obligated to furnish their supervisor. While the terms, "respect" and "authority" are not synonymous it does appear that the former is an almost essential precondition for the latter. Indeed, arbitrators when deciding on the propriety of discipline given for abuse directed at supervisors at least implicitly regard respect as an essential ingredient in efficient labor-management relationships.